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The Pane Time Machine X

Time Machine Basics

Time Machine is the name of Apple’s technology which automatically creates backup copies of your computer’s hard drives. Backups are created silently in the background each hour. Outdated file sets are automatically removed, keeping hourly backups for the last day, daily backups for the last week, and monthly backups until the destination device is full. Each backup set contains a nearly complete snapshot of the contents of all disks for which Time Machine has been activated. “Nearly” means that Time Machine automatically omits files which are considered unimportant or which can be recreated, like log files, the Trash, caches, the Spotlight search index, etc. As of macOS 11, this also includes the operating system itself. Although your files can be restored for each point in time for which a backup is available, Time Machine technically only stores the differences between any two given consecutive backup operations (incremental backup). Differences are handled at the file level, i.e. if a single byte in a file X has changed, the entire file X will be copied during the next Time Machine backup run.

General Notes when Working with the Time Machine Pane

Time Machine can be configured to work with multiple destination devices at the same time. In addition to disk drives, destination devices can be servers in the network (such as Time Capsule), a Mac running Time Machine file sharing (available in old versions of macOS Server and in standard versions of macOS as of version 10.13), or a NAS with Time Machine support. TinkerTool System automatically detects your configuration and always works on the Time Machine destination that is currently defined by macOS to be the “active” one.

The name and type of the destination are shown in the upper box of the Time Machine pane. For disk-based backups, the name of the volume is shown at Destination. Network-based backups are indicated by a headline with the notice network mode. The upper box also shows whether automatic backups are currently enabled, and if a successful maintenance connection between TinkerTool System and Time Machine could be established. If an error occurred, e.g. if the current privacy settings of your computer don’t permit that you access Time Machine disks, this will be noted in the upper box.

The different versions of Time Machine for macOS 10 and macOS 11

As of macOS 11, the technology of Time Machine has been strongly extended and modified: While earlier versions of the operating system only accepted destination volumes for backups that had been formatted with the file system Mac OS Extended (HFS+), backups onto the Apple File System (APFS) are now possible as well. If Time Machine is freshly configured for a new backup disk, it will use APFS and will operate in macOS 11 mode. When taking over old backup sets initially created with macOS 10, OS X, or Mac OS X, Time Machine will continue working with HFS+.

The feature sets between the macOS 10 and the macOS 11 variants of Time Machine are very different. For this reason, TinkerTool System uses different panes to control Time Machine depending on which variant is detected. If running in macOS 10 mode, the respective pane will identify as Time Machine X.

This chapter applies to the Time Machine X pane. When using the macOS 11 variant, please continue reading in the next chapter.

TinkerTool System won’t switch the Time Machine mode of operation while it is running. When you swap the destination disk from HFS+ to APFS while TinkerTool System is open, the application will notice this the next time you will be preparing a maintenance operation and shows an error message in this case. You can simply quit and reopen the program to resolve this situation.

Maintenance After Replacing a Data Source of Time Machine

The incremental backup strategy mentioned in the introduction only works if Time Machine can be absolutely sure which files have changed between two consecutive backups and which haven’t. If Time Machine cannot confirm that a given file is identical to the one it saw during a previous run, that file will be freshly copied in the next run.

When the identity of your computer changes, for example if you purchased a new one, or if it had components replaced during a repair, Time Machine has to assume that all the files of your computer have changed. This is true even if you have “cloned” or manually copied the files from the old to the new computer. This means that during the next backup, Time Machine will copy all the files again. Only if you use Time Machine itself to perform a full restore operation of the previous data, will Time Machine “know” that it can safely reuse the previous incremental backup.

The same problem arises if you replace a volume of your Mac, but use something other than Time Machine to copy the data back. Replacing a volume can mean

Only if you copy a disk drive or partition physically (i.e., by a copying the raw data blocks, not file by file) and make sure that the operating system where Time Machine is active doesn’t mount both volumes simultaneously, will Time Machine seamlessly continue its incremental operation. In all other cases, Time Machine has to assume that all files on the entire affected volume have changed and therefore must be fully copied again.

TinkerTool System can help here, letting you manually confirm to Time Machine that a computer or a volume should still be considered the same, although its identity changed. This way, the new item will take over the role of the replaced item, and its history in Time Machine can be continued without requiring a full new backup.

Inheriting a Time Machine Backup Set from a Replaced Computer

If you need to confirm that Time Machine can safely take over a backup set that was created by a different physical computer or by a different operating system installation on the same computer, you can reassign the backup set to your current system. You should only do this in the aforementioned scenario, where all files have indeed be copied to the new system installation by some other means (not under control of Time Machine). Perform the following steps to do this:

  1. Open the tab item Maintenance on the pane Time Machine X.
  2. Click the button Assign a foreign backup to this Mac….
Maintenance after replacing Time Machine data sources
Maintenance after replacing Time Machine data sources

TinkerTool System will guide you through all steps of the procedure. You will need to locate the foreign backup set to complete the operation. In case of a local Time Machine disk, this will be the top folder of the backup set. It has the name of the previous computer and is located in the folder Backups.backupdb on the destination disk. When using APFS, the folder is the Time Machine volume itself.

Depending on how Time Machine was configured before inheriting the foreign backup set, you might need to re-enable Time Machine on the Time Machine pane of System Preferences and change the backup destination.

In case the local volumes of the current computer are different from the ones of the previous computer, inheriting the backup set alone won’t be sufficient. You will additionally need to reassign each volume, which is described in the next section.

Associating a Replaced Volume with a Volume in the Backup Set

As outlined in the introduction, there can also be cases where you need to confirm to Time Machine that it can safely take over the history of a volume in the backup, although the identity of the original source volume has changed. You can reassign a volume in the backup (for all snapshots recorded by Time Machine) to match a volume of your current setup. You should only do this in the previously mentioned scenario, i.e. where all files have indeed been copied from the previous volume to the new volume (not under control of Time Machine, so that Time Machine did not “notice” it). Perform the following steps to do this:

  1. Open the tab item Maintenance on the pane Time Machine X.
  2. Click the button Confirm a copied volume to replace a previous volume….

Three items need to be specified:

TinkerTool System reassigns that volume for the entire time line recorded in that backup set, i.e. for all snapshots. It does not matter if the previous volume changed its name during the recorded time period. Time Machine identifies the volume correctly tracking its internal history data.

Attention Do not abuse the two maintenance features to manipulate the backup in any other cases that have not been mentioned here. The backup set could become unusable.

Backup Verification and Statistics

TinkerTool System gives you access to internal check features of Time Machine. You can learn more about the actual storage size needed by the individual snapshots, and you can initiate a verification run on selected snapshots, ensuring that the contents of the backup are still intact.

Computing Statistics on the Change Rates between All Snapshots

As mentioned in the introduction, Time Machine simulates that each snapshot contains a complete copy of all data that was part of the backup at the recorded point in time. So if your computer always stored approximately 500 GB of data on its disks and 50 snapshots have been recorded by Time Machine, the destination volume appears to virtually contain 500 GB 50 = 25,000 GB of data. This large amount of data is not really stored on the disk, however. In reality, Time Machine optimizes storage space on its destination disks by recording only changes between consecutive backup runs. To estimate the storage space that is usually consumed by each snapshot, it can be helpful to evaluate the changes between backup runs and to compute the average rate of change. To do this, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Checks on the pane Time Machine X.
  2. Click the button Compute Statistics.

Note that all files on the entire Time Machine disk need to be analyzed for this computation. This will take a considerable amount of time.

TinkerTool System creates a text report after Time Machine has completed the computation. This report can be saved to a text file if necessary.

Features for backup verification and statistics
Features for backup verification and statistics
Verifying the Contents of a Volume Snapshot

To be absolutely sure that the backup copy of a volume for a specific point in time can be read without problems and is fully intact, you can force Time Machine to validate its internal checksums. As of version 10.11 of the operating system, Time Machine protects each file in the backup by computing and recording a checksum for the content of that file. To verify a backup run for a volume, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Checks on the pane Time Machine.
  2. Use the pop-up button Snapshot to select the time of the backup that should be checked.
  3. Use the pop-up button Volume to select the volume in the snapshot that should be verified.
  4. Click the button Verify selected backup.

The check will need a considerable amount of time. If problems are identified, TinkerTool System will show a table with all issues after the verification has been completed. The table will list the full paths of the files in the backup where a problem was detected. There can be two types of problems, indicated as follows:

Possible reasons for cases where no check is possible could be:

The list of possible reasons depends on the operating system version and may not be complete.

Computing the Actual Storage Size of a Volume Snapshot

In addition to the change rates between consecutive snapshots, it can be interesting to know the actual storage size consumed by a snapshot that contains the backup copy for a specific volume. Due to the internal optimization of Time Machine, this size can be very different from the simulated size for the related backup folder shown in the Finder or by similar applications listing files.

To let Time Machine compute the true storage size of a volume snapshot, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Checks on the pane Time Machine X.
  2. Use the pop-up button Snapshot to select the time of the backup that should be evaluated.
  3. Use the pop-up button Volume to select the volume in the snapshot that should be evaluated.
  4. Click the button Analyze selected backup.

TinkerTool System summarizes the size value in a message that will be shown after the computation has been completed.

The actual storage size can be zero if the contents of the selected volume did not change between consecutive backup runs.

Comparing Time Machine backup snapshots

Time Machine does not usually need any maintenance as long as you don’t replace the source or destination disks. You just define which disk volumes should be included in the backup, what destination drive should be used, and switch Time Machine on. However, there can be certain instances where Time Machine may not run as expected – for example if there is a file system problem on one of the source volumes, or if there was a power failure during a Time Machine run. TinkerTool System can help you to detect possible problems with backups by controlling one of the diagnostic features of Time Machine with a few simple clicks.

You can select two different backup sets and compare all their files. This will show the “true,” incremental contents of a Time Machine backup, rather than the simulated view in the Finder or the Time Machine user interface, which always shows the entire effective backup set at a selected point in time. If some part of Time Machine is failing, this will mean that although specific files have been modified, they have not been included in the next incremental backup copy corresponding to the Time Machine snapshot taken immediately after the modification time. For typical Time Machine problems, the updates for an entire folder would be missing, which can be detected easily when comparing the two backups preceding and following the modification of files in that folder.

Check Time Machine by comparing backups
Check Time Machine by comparing backups

You can also use this feature to determine which files have changed on your computer at a particular point in time, or to assess how many files with what storage size are typically part of your backups every hour.

Alternatively, it is also possible to compare the current data on your computer (that is, all files which are selected to be handled by Time Machine) with a specific backup session. This feature is helpful to detect implementation errors in Time Machine. You can immediately see whether the data that should be copied has actually been copied. Note that this type of compare operation takes a significant amount of time, because all files on your computer have to be checked.

To start the comparison of two Time Machine backups, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Comparison on the pane Time Machine X.
  2. At Times, select the two points in time for which the backup sets should be compared. The order of the times does not matter. To choose the “live” data on your computer for comparison, set a check mark at Compare with current source.
  3. If Time Machine is configured to create backup copies of multiple disk volumes, select the desired disk to compare, using the pop-up menu Volume. (This is not necessary or possible when comparing the current source data).
  4. Click the button Compare.

Depending on the size of your backup and the amount of data differing between the two selected backup sets, the compare operation may need a few seconds or several minutes to complete. The results will be shown in the table.

If you move the mouse cursor over an entry in the column Changes, TinkerTool System will display a short textual explanation, so you don’t need to learn the abbreviations.

Working with Local Snapshots

If at least one of the volumes selected to be part of the backup uses the modern Apple File System (APFS), Time Machine will automatically enable additional features:

This basically means that an APFS snapshot can be used as a local snapshot of Time Machine. Working with these snapshots doesn’t require access to the actual Time Machine backup volume.

Other parts of macOS can use the APFS snapshot feature as well. The list shown on the tab Local Snapshots considers APFS snapshots created by Time Machine only. If you like to work with the complete list of APFS snapshots, please see the chapter The Pane APFS.

It is under sole discretion of the operating system when to automatically create or to remove APFS snapshots. TinkerTool System gives you additional manual control about these local snapshots, however.

Working with local APFS snapshots
Working with local APFS snapshots

To create a new local snapshot on all APFS volumes that are part of your Time Machine backup, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Local Snapshots on the pane Time Machine X.
  2. Click the button Create local snapshot now.

Creating the local snapshot should typically require less than one minute.

You can review all snapshots using the table Available local snapshots on the same pane. The available points in time are listed as separate lines. By default, you will see a list for the entire computer. If more than one APFS volume is in use, it can also be interesting to see the list of snapshots on each volume. Note that the sets of available snapshots can be different on each volume because some volumes may have less free storage space, so they will automatically remove snapshots earlier than others. To select between different volumes, use the pop-up button above the table.

To reclaim storage space on a particular volume, select the volume with the pop-up button above the table, then click the button Reclaim storage space…. TinkerTool System will ask you in a dialog sheet how much bytes you like at least to be reclaimed. You can specify a low value (like 1) to make sure that only the smallest possible number of snapshots will be deleted. The operating system will use its standard policies to automatically select the snapshots that should be removed. At the end of the operation, TinkerTool System will show a summary how many local snapshots have been lost and how much storage space has been freed on the volume.

In some cases, Time Machine may decide to postpone the cleaning operation for some time. In this particular situation, TinkerTool System may not indicate that storage space has been freed yet immediately after requesting a reclaim procedure.

In order to free up as much space from a volume immediately, select the volume at Available local snapshots and click the button Delete all from this volume. Time Machine will understand this as urgent request to reclaim the maximum amount of storage space currently in use for local snapshots.

To delete a local snapshot manually, select it in the table and click the button Delete selected snapshot….

Deleting Time Machine Backup Data

Remove a backup snapshot from the currently active Time Machine disk

As part of its daily routine, Time Machine cleans up backups regularly, if necessary every hour. After a backup session has run, outdated backup snapshots are removed from the backup disk. Sometimes, you may like to remove a specific snapshot manually, e.g. to free some storage space. You must never do this via the macOS Finder. This could damage the Time Machine backup set, and in addition also the Trash feature of the Finder. TinkerTool System offers you a safe way to remove a Time Machine backup for a certain point in time:

  1. Open the tab item Delete Backups on the pane Time Machine X.
  2. Select the snapshot that should be removed with the pop-up button at Delete in the upper part of the window.
  3. Click the button Delete… next to it.

This operation removes items from Time Machine “horizontally”: All files and folders of a snapshot will be deleted, so you can no longer “travel back in time” to restore one or all files for this specific moment. All other snapshots remain intact, however. You can additionally remove items “vertically”, i.e. you can delete a specific file or folder from all snapshots in the backup set. This feature is already built into the Time Machine user interface:

  1. Use the Finder to open the parent folder that contains the item to be removed.
  2. Open the Time Machine user interface.
  3. Select the object you like to remove in the Finder-like window of Time Machine.
  4. Use the context menu (right click) to remove the selected item.
Remove any Time Machine data from local HFS+ backup disks

Time Machine disks can be in use by multiple computers. In macOS 10 mode, you can store other data on a Time Machine disk as well, although this is definitely not recommended, because this additional data cannot become part of a Time Machine backup. (In case of disk failure, you would lose both the original data and the backup at the same time.) If you like to remove some or all Time Machine data from such disks, e.g. when you no longer need backups for a decommissioned computer, you again must not use the Finder to do so. This would risk that the entire file system of this disk and the Trash are damaged.

TinkerTool System can also help in this case, where the Time Machine data on disk does not necessarily belong to your currently active backup of the local computer. You can remove data from inactive backups or from backups of other Macs. In particular, you can delete

If you have a “pure” Time Machine disk that only contains backups for a single computer and has no other data stored on it, the fastest solution to clean this disk will be to simply re-format it with Disk Utility, executing Erase on its main partition. However, if the disk was encrypted and should be re-used for new, encrypted Time Machine backups later, a delete operation via TinkerTool System could be faster overall, because the necessary re-encryption (that is not necessary for a manual delete process) could take a very long time.

  1. Open the tab item Delete Backups on the pane Time Machine X.
  2. In the lower part of the window, make your choices for Time Machine disk and Delete to select the items to remove.
  3. Click the button Delete….
Deleting Time Machine backup data
Deleting Time Machine backup data

Retrieving Time Machine Logs

macOS records a log file each time a Time Machine backup has run and a new snapshot was created. These logs are usually invisible, but TinkerTool System can retrieve them for each snapshot if required. Among other information, the log discloses data

The logs are only available in English, no matter what language you have chosen for the user interface. The reports are created by macOS, not by TinkerTool System, so their contents can change without notice depending on which operating system version has created them.

To open a log for a snapshot of your Time Machine backup set, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Logs on the pane Time Machine X.
  2. Select the time of the backup that is of interest with the pop-up button Snapshot.
  3. Confirm to macOS that its helper program authopen should have permission to read the log.

TinkerTool System shows the contents of the log in the text area at Backup Log.

Access to Time Machine logs
Access to Time Machine logs