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File Operations

The Pane Files

A file system link is an additional representation of an existing file, or —in some cases— a folder. It can be used to refer to the file at a different location, in another folder or on another disk drive, or by using a different name. Mac OS X is supporting three different types of links:

Link
Link

The Mac OS X Finder can create aliases only. If the Finder displays a symbolic link, it will also represent it as alias to simplify the situation for unexperienced users. Such objects are shown with a black curved arrow in addition to their icons. Aliases are a technology taken over from the classic Mac OS, they cannot be handled natively in Mac OS X. As a result, an alias can only be processed if the programs accessing that alias support some kind of emulation, simulating the environment of the classic Mac OS. This means not all programs running under Mac OS X are capable of understanding aliases.

Because the Finder cannot create symbolic links or hard links, TinkerTool System adds this missing functions. Perform the following steps to create links:

  1. Open the tab item Link in the pane Files.
  2. Drag the original file or folder from the Finder into the field Original file or folder. You can also click the button […] to navigate to the object, or click on the white area to enter the UNIX path of the object.
  3. Press the button Select… to specify the location and name where you like the link to be created.
  4. By default, a symbolic link will be created. If you like to create a hard link, check the option Create hard link instead of symbolic link. Remember that hard links are restricted to point to files on the same disk volume.
  5. Press the button Create.

Protection

Mac OS X supports a special protection attribute which can be attached to files or folders. When you mark an object as being protected, it is no longer possible to change or delete it. Any change requires that the protection is being removed first. The Mac OS X Finder uses a lock symbol displayed in addition to the usual icon to represent a protected object. Sometimes, the terms “locked” and “unlocked” are used for protected and unprotected objects, respectively. However, locking can also mean a different thing, namely to mark an object as being in exclusive use by a program, so we don’t use this term to avoid confusion.

Protection
Protection

TinkerTool System has the option to set or remove protection flags not only for single objects but for a whole hierarchy of files and folders included in a top folder. To work with protection attributes, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Protection in the pane Files.
  2. Drag a file or folder from the Finder into the field File or folder. You can also click the button […] to navigate to the object, or click on the white area to enter the UNIX path of the object.
  3. If you have selected a folder, decide if the protection should only be modified for the folder itself or all its contents, too. Set the option Also include all contents of this folder accordingly.
  4. Switch the radio buttons Operation either to Protect or Unprotect.
  5. Press the button Start.

Some non-Macintosh file systems are not capable of supporting protection attributes. In this case, the operating system may confirm that the protection marker has been set successfully, but the object remains in the unprotected state.

Attributes

In addition to the protection marker, which is also supported at the UNIX level of Mac OS X, the operating system is supporting some high-level attributes which have been adopted from the classic Mac OS.

Although we are referring to type and creator attributes as being HFS codes, these codes are not restricted to be used on HFS and HFS+ file systems only. Mac OS X is capable of emulating these attributes on nearly any file system.

Attributes
Attributes

To change one or all of these high-level attributes, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Attributes in the pane Files.
  2. Drag a file or folder from the Finder into the field File or folder. You can also click the button […] to navigate to the object, or click on the white area to enter the UNIX path of the object.
  3. Modify the attributes entering new values into the code fields, or pressing one of the Finder Presentation buttons.
  4. Press the button Apply to set the new attributes, or press the button Revert to discard your changes and reread the current attributes from the selected object.

Type codes and creator codes must be specified either by four characters of the ASCII character set, or by four arbitrary bytes which have to be entered using eight hexadecimal digits (the digits 0 to 9 and the letters a, b, c, d, e, f, or A, B, C, D, E, F). If you are entering hexadecimal digits, you must begin your input with the Euro currency symbol (€). This is necessary to let the program know whether you are specifying the digits to represent bytes or to represent the code itself. Note that codes specified by ASCII are always case-sensitive. Examples for valid codes are:

To remove a type or creator code from a file, delete the entry in the respective code field completely and press Apply. TinkerTool System cannot assist you in selecting type or creator codes for known document types or known applications, respectively. You’ll have to know the correct codes in advance.

Keep in mind that you can no longer use drag-and-drop or file dialogs for objects which are invisible. You’ll have to enter the object’s full UNIX path to access it by an application. This also includes TinkerTool System. However, you could use its sister application TinkerTool to modify your Finder preferences to the effect that the Finder displays invisible objects, too.

Quarantine

An important part of the security infrastructure built into Mac OS X is its capability to track potentially dangerous files coming from untrusted sources, or having been transferred via unsafe channels like the Internet. When you open such a file or program, you will receive a warning message which asks for reconfirmation if you actually trust the file. The source of the file and the time when it was loaded onto your computer is noted in the message.

Quarantine
Quarantine

This feature is technically implemented by adding special quarantine attributes to the affected files. TinkerTool System can display this information, giving you the option to remove the attribute, hereby “un-quarantining” the files. This can be helpful if you know that the file comes from a trusted source and you like to “re-publish” it on your own computer, for example before placing it into the public folder /Users/Shared or before uploading it to your local file server. This way you can avoid that other users are confronted with the warning message. They might not be able to successfully confirm they trust the files because they might not have the necessary write permissions for the shared folder.

If you are using an operating system equipped with the security feature “Gatekeeper”, keep the following in mind: Removing quarantine information from an application will also disable Gatekeeper for that application.

To remove quarantine information from a single object, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Quarantine in the pane Files.
  2. Drag a file or bundle from the Finder into the field File or bundle. You can also click the button […] to navigate to the object, or click on the white area to enter the UNIX path of the object.
  3. Verify the current status displayed in the field Quarantine information.
  4. Press the button Remove Quarantine Information.

Contents

You may sometimes receive files of unknown origin or with unknown document types. In other cases, files may have invalid type markers or file name extensions, for example a file displayed by the Finder to be a PNG image although it actually contains a JPEG image. To find out what is really contained in a file, you can have Mac OS X look into the file letting it analyze what its contents may be. To do this, perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Contents in the pane Files.
  2. Drag a file from the Finder into the field File to analyze. You can also click the button […] to navigate to the object, or click on the white area to enter the UNIX path of the object.
  3. The result of the analysis will be displayed in the field Results.

The analysis is done by the underlying operating system, not by TinkerTool System. For this reason the results may slightly vary in different operating system versions. The report is always displayed in English, no matter what preferred language you have set in your personal preferences.

You can only select one file at a time. It is not possible to analyze applications or other bundles. They will be simply identified as being a directory, the technical term for a folder. This analysis is correct, because bundles are actually folders which may contain a large number of different files although the Finder represents them by single file icons. To select one of the files inside a bundle, select it in the Finder and use the Finder’s feature Show package contents to open it as a folder. Then drag one of the contained files into the field of TinkerTool System.

Contents
Contents

In some cases, it might also be helpful to know which metadata the Spotlight search engine of Mac OS X has collected about a particular object. To additionally display the Spotlight data, press the button Also show Spotlight metadata below the Results field. A table will appear which contains the complete list of Spotlight attributes for the selected object.

Spotlight data
Spotlight data

Force Delete

Badly written applications and installers which don’t handle permissions properly may leave files or folders on your system that cannot be moved into the Trash very easily. In other cases, applications may create a large number of files with write protection which also cannot be removed quickly. If you want to enforce removal of a large number of protected files, or if you want to remove a file from a folder with inappropriate permission settings, you can do so with the Force Delete feature:

Force delete
Force delete
  1. Open the tab item Force Delete in the pane Files.
  2. Drag a file or folder from the Finder into the field File or folder to delete. You can also click the button […] to navigate to the object, or click on the white area to enter the UNIX path of the object.
  3. If you have selected a folder for removal and this folder contains objects, you must confirm that you are going to delete the folder together with its objects inside. In that case, set the check mark Allow deletion of non-empty folders.
  4. Press the button Delete.

Trash

The same problem outlined in the last section can appear when folders already have been moved into the Trash: Protection attributes may prevent that the Trash can be emptied successfully by the Finder. TinkerTool System can enforce deletion in this case, and offers the additional option that you can control which disk volumes will be affected by the Empty Trash operation. To use this feature, perform the following steps:

Trash
Trash
  1. Open the tab item Trash in the pane Files.
  2. In the table of currently connected disk volumes, select all volumes where the Trash should be emptied by setting check marks in the Empty Trash column. You can also press the button Select all to select all volumes. This is equivalent to the Empty Trash operation usually performed by the Finder.
  3. Press the button Empty Trash.

For technical reasons, the Trash of the volume which hosts your private home folder must always be emptied, no matter what other disks you have selected for this operation. The volume of the home folder cannot be excluded and therefore always shows a check mark in the list.

Extended Attributes

Many of the additions to files already mentioned in this chapter, like HFS attributes or quarantine markers, constitute records of additional information, attached to a file or folder. Several other elements can be attached in such a manner as well, like color labels of the Finder, Spotlight comments, backup markers of Time Machine and many other things. All modern versions of Mac OS X collect such additional records as so-called Extended Attributes. Each Extended Attribute has a certain name, defined freely by the application which created and uses this attribute. Connected with each name is a certain sequence of bytes, representing the value or contents of the attribute. What exactly is stored as contents is at the discretion of the respective program. The number of Extended Attributes which can be attached to a file system object is theoretically unlimited.

As of OS X Mavericks, Extended Attributes are also used for file tags.

Older versions of Mac OS X or the classic Mac OS have used a similar concept known as named forks of a file. In particular, the so-called resource fork played the most important role. The advantage of using Extended Attributes or forks is that additional information can be stored together with the actual contents of a file (usually called data fork), using a single icon and single name for administration and transport. A disadvantage is that not all file systems (e.g. the FAT format of MS-DOS) are capable of storing such attributes. If a file, which has many attributes attached, is copied onto a disk not prepared for such operations, the additional streams of data can simply be lost. It also becomes more difficult to specify the true amount of storage space needed for a file, compared to the simple case.

Modern versions of Mac OS X handle a resource fork internally as Extended Attribute with the name com.apple.ResourceFork.

There can be many different reasons to remove Extended Attributes from files. Here two typical examples:

You can specify a single file or a whole folder of files in TinkerTool System to let the program display all Extended Attributes associated with the objects. Afterwards, you can choose to remove one or all attributes with a certain name from the set of file system objects. Please note that read permission is needed for the affected folder and Extended Attributes. For the delete operation, write permission is needed, respectively.

Remove Extended Attributes
Remove Extended Attributes

Perform the following steps to display Extended Attributes, or to delete them, respectively:

  1. Open the tab item Extended Attr. in the pane Files.
  2. Drag a file or folder from the Finder into the field File or top folder from which to remove Extended Attributes. You can also click the button […] to navigate to the object, or click on the white area to enter the UNIX path of the object.
  3. Press the button Remove… to review the Extended Attributes of the selected objects.

Before any attribute is actually going to be deleted, TinkerTool System uses a dialog sheet where all found attributes and the file system objects they belong to will be listed:

The removal operation will start after pressing the button Delete in the sheet. No object will be touched if you press the Cancel button instead.

Attention You should only use this feature if you know exactly what you are doing, in particular, which attributes are needed for which purpose. Specific documents may no longer open after their attributes have been removed.

Library

Apple uses different policies for the display of the special folder “Library” which is part of each user’s home folder. In all system versions prior to Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, this folder was handled as any other folder. As of version 10.7, the folder is hidden in the Finder and all other file navigation panels in order not to confuse unexperienced users.

Library
Library

If you don’t like the policy of Lion, or if you like to protect the Library folder in previous versions of Mac OS X as well, you can make it either visible or invisible by a single mouse click. Perform the following steps:

  1. Open the tab item Library in the pane Files.
  2. Press the button Make visible or Make invisible.

The button toggles between the two available states. The current status of the Library folder is shown in a text line above the button.

Apple makes the Library folder invisible again when you update the operating system. If you like your Library folder to be visible, you’ll have to change the setting after each system update.